1837 – 1861

1837  –  1845

The Battle of Blood River (Zulus)  -  Natal  -  Orange Free State  -  The Transvaal

Chartism  -  The Trail of Tears (Cherokee and John Ross)  -  Second and Third

Seminole Wars (Florida)  -  The First Opium War (TheTreaty of Nanking)

First Anglo-Afghan War  -  The Sind War and the Sikh Wars (North-West Frontier)

The Treaty of Waitangi and the Maori Wars (New Zealand)  -  Muhammad Ali

Union of Canada Act  -  Great Potato Famine (Ireland & repeal of the Corn Laws)


1837  –  1845

1846  –  1852

1846  –  1852

Treaty of Oregon (USA/Canada)  -  Mexican War (USA)  -  Communist Manifesto

Karl Marx  -  Friedrich Engels  -  The Year of Revolutions (Europe)  -  The Gold Rush

(Australia, S.Africa, Canada, New Zealand)  -  The Great Exhibition (Crystal Palace

and Henry Cole)  -  Prince Albert  -  South Africa (Transvaal, Orange Free State, and

Natal)  -  The Cape Frontier Wars (Xhosa)  -  Napoleon III (The Second Republic)

Alphonse de Lamartine (politician).

1853  –  1861

1853  –  1861

The Crimean War  -  Battles of Sinope, Alma River, Balaclava and Inkerman

Treaty of Kanagawa (USA/Japan)  -  The Siege of Sevastopol  -  Treaty of Paris

Industrial Revolution  -  Second Opium War (Tientsin Treaties/Taiping Rebellion)

The Indian Mutiny  -  The India Act  -  Suez Canal (Ferdinand de Lesseps)

The War of 1859  -  The Battles of Magenta & Solferino  -  Charles Darwin

(HMS Beagle)  -  Italian Independence (Garibaldi)  -  The American Civil War

(The Trent Affair) -  Alexander II (re. serfdom)  -  The Death of Prince Albert

George Catlin

(American Indians)

J.M.W. Turner

(Fighting Temeraire)

John Ruskin

(art critic)

Frédérick Chopin


Franz Liszt


Isaac Albéniz


Richard Wagner


Ludwig Spohr


Thomas Carlyle


Charles Kingsley

(The Water Babies)

George Sand

(The Devil’s Pool)

Edgar Allan Poe

(House of Usher)

Mrs Henry Wood

(East Lynne)

Charles Baudelaire

(Flowers of Evil)

Gustave Flaubert

(Madame Bovary)

Robert Browning

(Pied Piper)

Elizabeth Browning

(Aurora Leigh)

Alexandre Dumas

(Three Musketeers)

Dumas (fils)

(problem plays)

Prosper Mérimée


John Couch Adams


Friedrich Bessel

(Dog Stars)

Christian Doppler

(Double Stars)

Louis Daguerre


Fox Talbot

(Pencil of Nature)

John Franklin

(NW Passage)


Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel

(Bessel Functions)

Soren Kierkegaard (Either/Or)

Fox Talbot (cuneiform)

Isambard Kingdom Brunel

(Great Western)

The Bronte Sisters

Charlotte (Jane Eyre)

Emily (Wuthering Heights)

Anne (Agnes Grey)

Elizabeth Gaskell (Cranford)

Thackeray (Vanity Fair)

Dickens (David Copperfield)

Wilkie Collins  (Moonstone)

Herman Melville (Moby Dick)

Hawthorne (Scarlet Letter)

Alphone de Lamartine (poet)

Hector Berlioz


Robert Schumann


Samuel Colt


Ralph Waldo Emerson


John Simpson


Medical Advances

(1840s & 1850s)

Edward Lear

(Bk of Nonsense)

John Gould

(Birds & Beasts)

Pre Raphaelites

(Rossetti, Millais

and Hunt)

Charles Sturt

(Central Australia)

Edward John Eyre

(South West Australia)

Ludwig Leichhardt

(North Australia)

Heinrich Barth

(North West Africa)

Austen Layard


Emile Botta

(Palace of Sargon II)

Henry Rawlinson

(Persian script)

Charles Newton


Rudolf Clausius (thermodynamics)

James Joule (Joule’s Law)

Gustave Courbet


Barbizon School

(Millet, Rousseau

and Corot)

Hudson River School

(Frederick E. Church)

David Livingstone


Paul Belloni du Chaillu

(West Africa)

Burton and Speke

(White Nile)

John Stuart

(central Australia)

Burke and Wills

(crossing Australia)

Giuseppe Verdi

(La Traviata)

Mkhail Ginka

(Life for the Tsar)

Jacques Offenbach

(Tales of Hoffmann)

Charles F. Gounod

(Faust & Gallia)

Stephen Foster

(Camptown Races)

Louis Pasteur (bacteria)

Rudolf Virchow

(cellular pathology)

Schleiden & Schwann

(cell theory)

Charles Robert Darwin

(theory of evolution)

Thomas Henry Huxley

(Darwin’s bulldog)

Alfred Russel Wallace

(natural selection)

Henry Bates

(insect life)

Henry Longfellow

(Song of Hiawatha)

John Whittier

(Mad Muller)

Anthony Trollope

(Barchester Towers)

Thomas Macaulay

(History of England)

Thomas Hughes

(Tom Brown)

R.M. Ballantyne

(Coral Island)

Alfred Tennyson

(Idylls of the King)

Edward Fitzgerald

(Omar Khayyam)

George Eliot

(Mill on the Floss)

Charles Reade

(Cloister & Hearth)

H. Beecherstowe

(Uncle Tom)

Henry Bessemer

(Bessemer Process)

Ferdinand de Lesseps

(Suez Canal)

Florence Nightingale


Mary Seacole


Elisabeth Blackwell

(first woman doctor)

John Stuart Mill

(On Liberty)

John Stuart Mill

(Political Economy)

David Livingston


Matthew Arnold

(Rugby School)