1649  –  1660

Drogheda & Wexford (Ireland)  -  Tsar Alexis (Stenka Razin)  -  Battle of Worcester

(Cromwell)  -  (Defeat of Royalists)  -  Anglo-Dutch Wars (Admiral Blake)

The Princely Fronde (The Prince of Condé)  -  Charles X of Sweden  -  Richard

Cromwell (Lord Protector)  -  Treaty of Pyrenees (France & Spain)    

Declaration of Breda (General Monk)


Thomas Hobbes (Leviathan)

Jan Comenius

(Complete Didactic Works)

Izaak Walton (Compleate Angler)

Cyrano (science fiction)

Jan Vermeer (Lacemaker)

Pieter de Hooch (The Pantry)

John Wallis

(Opera Mathematica)

Blaise Pascal (pendulum clock)

Otto von Guericke (air pump)

Pascal (calculating machine)

Cape Town (Riebeeck)

The Quakers (George Fox)

Blaise Pascal (Pensées)

Jansenism (Antoine Arnaud)

Huygens (Systema Saturnium)