THE PRINCELY FRONDE 1650 -
Condé: detail, 17th century, by the Dutch painter Justus van Egmont (1601-
The Prince of Condé
xxxxxThe spiralling taxes and serious food shortages caused by the Thirty Years’ War, plus discontent over the rule of an Austrian queen regent and her Italian minister Mazarin, led to widespread street rioting in Paris. Fearing that the revolt -
xxxxxFollowing the devastation and disruption caused by the Thirty Years’ War there was much discontent throughout France. Spiralling taxes and serious food shortages caused widespread misery. Furthermore, following the death of Louis XIII in 1643, there was growing opposition to the "foreign" rule of the queen regent (Louis XIVs mother Anne of Austria) and her Italian-
xxxxxAs we have seen, this action sparked off the first revolt -
xxxxxBut the first revolt was no sooner over than the second civil war -
xxxxxBut the triumph of the Frondeurs was short lived. There were serious divisions within their ranks caused, not least, by a great deal of suspicion over the ambitions of Condé, now once again at large. Astutely aware of these divisions, the regent, Anne of Austria, joined the Old Fronde and ordered the arrest of Condé in August 1651. Further conflict was now inevitable. Condé took up arms and entered Paris in April 1652, but two months later his forces were badly mauled by royal troops just outside the city, and, losing the support of parlement and the notables of Paris, he fled to the Spanish Netherlands. (He was later pardoned and became commander of the French army in 1675!) The young king, Louis XIV, and his mother entered Paris in triumph at the beginning of June, and Mazarin was reinstated in February 1653. It was a significant victory for the forces of the Crown.
xxxxxIt need not have ended in this way. Had the insurrection -
xxxxxIncidentally, when Louis XIV took control of his realm in 1661 his mother, Anne of Austria, retired to a convent. Interest in her life was renewed in the nineteenth century when the French writer Alexandre Dumas made her his central character in his novel The Three Musketeers, published in 1844. .......
xxxxx…… Cardinalxde Retz (1613-